Ohio, along with several other states, has included the use of Student Learning Objectives (SLOs) as one approach to measuring student growth to determine teacher effectiveness. Presently, little is known about how schools and districts are developing and using SLOs for teacher evaluation purposes, and if and how SLO-generated data are being used for designing appropriate student-centered performance improvement plans. This study examines the work of 30 Ohio early adopter districts developing and using SLOs, so as to assess the fidelity of SLO use, the utility of SLOs for improving student performance and measuring academic growth, and the use of SLOs in evaluating teachers. The mixed-methods research design includes data drawn from interviews, focus groups, document analysis, a teacher survey, and teacher ratings data reported in Ohio’s electronic Teacher and Principal Evaluation System (eTPES). This study was carried out under contract with the Ohio Department of Education in 2017 under a Race to the Top sub-award.